It is a type of pressure welding. It is used for joining pieces of sheet metal or wire. The welding heat is obtained at the location of the desired weld by the electrical resistance through the metal pieces to a relatively short duration, low voltage, high ampere electric current. The amount of current can be regulated by changing the primary turns of the transformer. When the area to be welded is sufficiently heated, the pressure varying from 25MPa to 55MPa is applied to the joining area by suitable electrodes until the weld is solid.
various types of electric resistance welding are as follows :
(1) Spot welding It is used for welding lap joints, joining components made from plate material having 0.025 to 1.25 mm in thickness. The plate to be joined together are places between the two electrode tips of copper or copper alloy.
(2) Roll spot and seam welding When the spot welds on two over lapping pieces of metal are spaced, the process of welding is known as roll spot welding. If the spot welds are sufficiently made close, then the process is called seam welding. This process is best for metal thickness ranging from 0.0.25 to 3 mm.
(3) Projection welding It is similar to spot welding except that one of the metal pieces to be welded has projections on its surface at the points, Where the welds are to be made. In other words it is a multi spot welding process.
(4) Butt welding
The butt welding is of two type : Flash butt welding , Upset butt welding
It is similar to spot welding except that one of the metal pieces to be welded has projections on its surface at the points, Where the welds are to be made. In other words it is a multi spot welding process.
The upset butt welding is especially adopted to rods, pipes and many other components of uniform sections. The flash butt welding is extensively used in the manufacture of steel containers and in the welding of mild steel shanks to high speed drills and reamers.